Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Income Taxes

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Income Taxes
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2019
Income Tax Disclosure [Abstract]  
Income Taxes Income Taxes
We make estimates and judgments in determining our provision for income taxes for financial statement purposes. These estimates and judgments occur in the calculation of certain tax assets and liabilities that arise from differences in the timing of recognition of revenue and expense for tax and financial statement purposes.
Our provision for income taxes in interim periods is based on our estimated annual effective tax rate. We record cumulative adjustments in the quarter in which a change in the estimated annual effective rate is determined. The estimated annual effective tax rate calculation does not include the effect of discrete events that may occur during the year. The effect of these events, if any, is recorded in the quarter in which the event occurs.
Our effective income tax rate was 17.4% and 0.7% for the nine months ended September 30, 2019 and 2018, respectively. Our effective rate is lower than the statutory rate for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, primarily due to $4.6 million of excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation recognized as discrete items as required by ASU 2016-09, partially offset by state taxes and certain non-deductible expenses.
During the second quarter of 2019, we completed a review of certain U.S. tax reform elements primarily related to the Base Erosion Anti-avoidance Tax (“BEAT”) and verified the existence of required information to confirm our eligibility for certain exceptions allowed under the BEAT provisions. As a result, we determined that we no longer had additional tax liability related to the BEAT, as enacted in the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“TCJA”), and clarified in additional guidance from the proposed regulations issued on December 13, 2018. We will continue to monitor our payments to foreign affiliates to verify our continued exemption from the BEAT provisions for 2019.
Our effective rate is lower than the statutory rate for the nine months ended September 30, 2018, primarily because of $10.1 million of excess tax benefits from stock-based compensation recognized as discrete items during the year, as required by ASU 2016-09.