Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

v3.6.0.2
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2016
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Basis of Presentation
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements and footnotes have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The consolidated financial statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”). The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of RealPage, Inc. and its wholly-owned subsidiaries. All intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Segment and Geographic Information
Segment and Geographic Information
Our chief operating decision maker is our Chief Executive Officer, who reviews financial information presented on a company-wide basis. As a result, we determined that the Company has a single reporting segment and operating unit structure.
Use of Estimates
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires our management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Significant estimates include the allowance for doubtful accounts; the useful lives of intangible assets and the recoverability or impairment of tangible and intangible asset values; fair value measurements; contingent commissions related to the sale of insurance products; purchase accounting allocations and contingent consideration; revenue and deferred revenue and related reserves; stock-based expense; and our effective income tax rate and the recoverability of deferred tax assets, which are based upon our expectations of future taxable income and allowable deductions. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
The Company is self-insured for the cost of claims made under its employee medical programs. These costs include an estimate for expected settlements of pending claims and an estimate for claims incurred but not reported. These significant estimates are based on management's assessment of outstanding claims, historical analyses, and current payment trends.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Our cash accounts are maintained at various financial institutions and may, from time to time, exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts.
Concentrations of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable result from substantially all of our clients being in the multifamily rental housing market. Our clients, however, are dispersed across different geographic areas. We do not require collateral from clients. We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts based upon the expected collectability of accounts receivable.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid investments with a maturity date, when purchased, of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Restricted Cash
Restricted Cash
Restricted cash consists of cash collected from tenants that will be remitted primarily to our clients.
Accounts Receivable
Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable primarily represent trade receivables from clients that we present net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. For several of our solutions, we invoice clients prior to the period in which service is provided. For certain transactions, we have met the requirements to recognize revenue in advance of invoicing the client. In these instances, we record unbilled receivables for the amount that will be due from the client upon invoicing. We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of clients to make required payments, or the client canceling prior to the service being rendered. As a result, a portion of our allowance is for services not yet rendered and, therefore, classified as an offset to deferred revenue. In evaluating the sufficiency of the allowance for doubtful accounts we consider the current financial condition of the client, the specific details of the client account, the age of the outstanding balance, the current economic environment, and historical credit trends. Any change in the assumptions used in analyzing a specific account receivable might result in an additional allowance for doubtful accounts being recognized in the period in which the change occurs.
Accounts receivable are written off upon determination of non-collectability following established Company policies based on the aging from the accounts receivable invoice date. In the case of balances relating to services not yet rendered, the balance is written off when the client cancels the service or when we determine that the invoiced service will no longer be provided, whichever occurs first. During the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014, we incurred bad debt expense of $2.4 million, $2.0 million, and $1.5 million, respectively.
Accounts receivable includes commissions due to the Company related to the sale of insurance products to individuals and commissions which are contingent based upon the activity in the underlying policies. Contingent commissions are determined based on a calculation that considers earned agent commissions, a percent of premium retained by our underwriting partner, incurred losses, and profit retained by our underwriting partner during the time period. Contingent commissions receivables are recorded at their estimated net realizable value, based on estimates and considerations which include, but are not limited to, the historical and projected loss rates incurred by the underlying policies.
Inventory
Inventory
Inventories are stated at the lower of net realizable value or cost, determined on a first-in, first-out basis. The Company establishes inventory allowances for estimated obsolescence or unmarketable inventory equal to the difference between the cost of inventory and the estimated realizable values based on assumptions about forecasted demand, open purchase commitments, and market conditions. Inventories consist primarily of meters, including subcontract labor costs on contracts in progress.
Property, Equipment and Software
Property, Equipment, and Software
Property, equipment, and software are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization, which are computed using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives:
Data processing and communications equipment
3 - 5 years
Furniture, fixtures, and other equipment
3 - 5 years
Software
3 - 5 years

Software includes both purchased and internally developed software. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term or twelve years. Gains and losses from asset disposals are included in the line "General and administrative" in the Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Capitalized Product Development Costs
Capitalized Product Development Costs
We capitalize specific product development costs, including costs to develop software products or the software components of our solutions to be marketed to external users, as well as software programs to be used solely to meet our internal needs. The costs incurred in the preliminary stages of development related to research, project planning, training, maintenance, general and administrative activities, and overhead costs are expensed as incurred. The costs of relatively minor upgrades and enhancements to the software are also expensed as incurred. Once an application has reached the development stage, internal and external costs incurred in the performance of application development stage activities, including costs of materials, services, and payroll and payroll-related costs for employees, are capitalized, if direct and incremental, until the software is substantially complete and ready for its intended use. Capitalization ceases upon completion of all substantial testing. We also capitalize costs related to specific upgrades and enhancements when it is probable the expenditures will result in additional functionality.
Capitalized costs are recorded as part of property, equipment, and software. Internal use software is amortized on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life, generally three to five years. Our management evaluates the useful lives of these assets on an annual basis and tests for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances occur that could impact the recoverability of these assets.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We test goodwill and identified intangible assets with indefinite lives for impairment separately on an annual basis in the fourth quarter of each year. Additionally, we test these assets in the interim if events and circumstances indicate they may be impaired. The events and circumstances that we consider include, but are not limited to, significant under-performance relative to current and historical or projected future operating results and significant changes in our overall business and/or product strategies.
If an event or circumstance occurs that would cause us to revise our estimates and assumptions used in analyzing the value of our goodwill and identified intangible assets with indefinite lives, the revision could result in a non-cash impairment charge that could have a material impact on our financial results. We evaluate impairment of goodwill by first performing a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. If it is concluded that this is the case, it is necessary to perform the two-step goodwill impairment test. The first step involves a comparison of the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step involves a comparison of the implied fair value and carrying amount of the goodwill of that reporting unit to determine the impairment charge, if any.
We quantitatively evaluate identified intangible assets with indefinite lives by estimating the fair value of those assets based on estimated future earnings derived from the assets using the income approach model. Assets with indefinite lives that have been determined to be inseparable due to their interchangeable use are grouped into single units of accounting for purposes of testing for impairment. If the carrying amount of an identified intangible asset with an indefinite life exceeds its fair value, we would recognize an impairment loss equal to the excess of carrying value over fair value.
Business Combinations
Business Combinations
The Company applies the guidance contained in ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations (“ASC 805”) in determining whether an acquisition transaction constitutes a business combination. ASC 805 defines a business as consisting of inputs and processes applied to those inputs that have the ability to create outputs. The acquisition transactions in Note 3 were determined to constitute business combinations and were accounted for under ASC 805.
Purchase consideration includes assets transferred, liabilities incurred, and/or equity interests issued by us, all of which are measured at their fair value as of the date of acquisition. Our business combination transactions may be structured to include an up-front cash payment and deferred and/or contingent cash payments to be made at specified dates subsequent to the date of acquisition. Deferred cash payments are included in the acquisition consideration based on their fair value as of the acquisition date. The fair value of these obligations is estimated based on the present value, as of the date of acquisition, of the anticipated future payments. The future payments are discounted using a rate that considers an estimate of the return expected by a market-participant and a measurement of the risk inherent in the cash flows, among other inputs. Deferred cash payments are generally subject to adjustments specified in the underlying purchase agreement related to the seller’s indemnification obligations. Contingent cash payments are obligations to make future cash payments to the seller, the payment of which is contingent upon the achievement of stipulated operational or financial targets in the post-acquisition period. Contingent cash payments are included in the purchase consideration at their fair value as of the acquisition date. The fair value of these payments is estimated using a probability weighted discount model based on the achievement of the specified targets. The fair value of these liabilities is re-evaluated on a quarterly basis, and any change is reflected in the line “General and administrative” in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations. These estimates are inherently uncertain and unpredictable. Unanticipated events and circumstances may occur that would affect the accuracy or validity of these estimates.
The total purchase consideration is allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values. Any excess consideration is classified as goodwill. Acquired intangibles are recorded at their estimated fair value based on the income approach using market-based estimates. Acquired intangibles generally include developed product technologies, which are amortized over their useful life on a straight-line basis, and client relationships, which are amortized over their useful life proportionately to the expected discounted cash flows derived from the asset. When trade names acquired are not classified as indefinite-lived, they are amortized on a straight-line basis over their expected useful life.
Acquisition costs are expensed as incurred and are included in the line “General and administrative” in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations. We include the results of operations from acquired businesses in our consolidated financial statements from the effective date of the acquisition.
Purchase Price Allocation
The estimated fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed presented below are provisional and are based on the information available as of the acquisition date. We believe that this information provides a reasonable basis for estimating the fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, but the Company is awaiting additional information necessary to finalize those values. Therefore, the provisional measurements of fair value are subject to change, and such changes could be significant. We expect to finalize the valuation of these assets and liabilities as soon as practicable, but no later than one year from the respective acquisition dates.
Goodwill and Identified Intangible Assets with Indefinite Lives
Goodwill and Identified Intangible Assets with Indefinite Lives
We test goodwill and identified intangible assets with indefinite lives for impairment separately on an annual basis in the fourth quarter of each year. Additionally, we test these assets in the interim if events and circumstances indicate they may be impaired. The events and circumstances that we consider include, but are not limited to, significant under-performance relative to current and historical or projected future operating results and significant changes in our overall business and/or product strategies.
If an event or circumstance occurs that would cause us to revise our estimates and assumptions used in analyzing the value of our goodwill and identified intangible assets with indefinite lives, the revision could result in a non-cash impairment charge that could have a material impact on our financial results. We evaluate impairment of goodwill by first performing a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. If it is concluded that this is the case, it is necessary to perform the two-step goodwill impairment test. The first step involves a comparison of the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step involves a comparison of the implied fair value and carrying amount of the goodwill of that reporting unit to determine the impairment charge, if any.
We quantitatively evaluate identified intangible assets with indefinite lives by estimating the fair value of those assets based on estimated future earnings derived from the assets using the income approach model. Assets with indefinite lives that have been determined to be inseparable due to their interchangeable use are grouped into single units of accounting for purposes of testing for impairment. If the carrying amount of an identified intangible asset with an indefinite life exceeds its fair value, we would recognize an impairment loss equal to the excess of carrying value over fair value.
Identified Intangible Assets with Finite Lives
Identified Intangible Assets with Finite Lives
Identified intangible assets with finite lives consist of acquired developed technologies, client relationships, vendor relationships, and trade names. We record intangible assets at fair value and amortize those with finite lives over the shorter of the contractual life or the estimated useful life. We estimate the useful lives of acquired developed product technologies and client relationships based on factors that include the planned use of each developed product technology and the expected pattern of future cash flows to be derived from each developed product technology and existing client relationships. Estimated useful lives for identified intangible assets with finite lives consist of the following:
Developed technologies
3 - 5 years
Client relationships
3 - 10 years
Vendor relationships
7 years
Trade names
1 - 7 years

We include amortization of acquired developed technologies in "Cost of revenue" and amortization of acquired client relationships, vendor relationships and trade names in "Sales and marketing" expenses in our Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Derivative Financial Instruments
The Company is exposed to interest rate risk related to our variable rate debt. The Company manages this risk through a program that may include the use of interest rate derivatives, the counterparties to which are major financial institutions. Our objective in using interest rate derivatives is to add stability to interest cost by reducing our exposure to interest rate movements. We do not use derivative instruments for trading or speculative purposes.
Our interest rate derivatives are designated as cash flow hedges and are carried in the Consolidated Balance Sheets at their fair value. Unrealized gains and losses resulting from changes in the fair value of these instruments are classified as either effective or ineffective. The effective portion of such gains or losses is recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”), while the ineffective portion is recorded as a component of interest expense in the period of change. Amounts reported in AOCI related to interest rate derivatives are reclassified into interest expense as interest payments are made on our variable-rate debt. If an interest rate derivative agreement is terminated prior to its maturity, the amounts previously recorded in AOCI are recognized into earnings over the period that the forecasted transactions impact earnings. If the hedging relationship is discontinued because it is probable that the forecasted transactions will not occur according to our original strategy, any related amounts previously recorded in AOCI are recognized in earnings immediately.
Deferred Revenue
Professional services and other revenue are recognized as the services are rendered for time and material contracts. Training revenues are recognized after the services are performed.
Deferred revenue primarily consists of billings or payments received in advance of revenue recognition from our subscription services described above and is recognized as the revenue recognition criteria are met. For several of our solutions, we invoice our clients in annual, monthly, or quarterly installments in advance of the commencement of the service period. Accordingly, the deferred revenue balance does not represent the total contract value of annual subscription agreements.
Revenue Recognition
Revenue Recognition
We derive our revenue from three primary sources: on demand software solutions, on premise software solutions, and professional services. We commence revenue recognition when all of the following conditions are met:
there is persuasive evidence of an arrangement;
the solution and/or service has been provided to the client;
the collection of the fees is probable; and
the amount of fees to be paid by the client is fixed or determinable.
If the fees are not fixed or determinable, we recognize revenues as payments become due from clients or when amounts owed are collected, provided all other conditions for revenue recognition have been met. Accordingly, this may materially affect the timing of our revenue recognition and results of operations.
When arrangements with clients include multiple software solutions and/or services, we allocate arrangement consideration to each deliverable based on its relative selling price. In such circumstances, we determine the relative selling price for each deliverable based on vendor specific objective evidence of selling price ("VSOE"), if available, or our best estimate of selling price ("BESP"). We have determined that third-party evidence of selling price is not available as our solutions and services are not largely interchangeable with those of other vendors. Our process for determining BESP considers multiple factors, including prices charged by us for similar offerings when sold separately, pricing and discount strategies, and other business objectives.
Taxes collected from clients and remitted to governmental authorities are presented on a net basis.
On Demand Revenue
Our on demand revenue consists of license and subscription fees, transaction fees related to certain of our software-enabled value-added services, and commissions derived from our selling certain risk mitigation services.
License and subscription fees are comprised of a charge billed at the initial order date and monthly or annual subscription fees for accessing our on demand software solutions. The license fee billed at the initial order date is recognized as revenue on a straight-line basis over the longer of the contractual term or the period in which the client is expected to benefit, which we consider to be three years. Recognition starts once the product has been activated. Revenue from monthly and annual subscription fees is recognized on a straight-line basis over the access period.
We recognize revenue from transaction fees derived from certain of our software-enabled value-added services as the related services are performed.
As part of our risk mitigation services to the rental housing industry, we act as an insurance agent and derive commission revenue from the sale of insurance products to individuals. The commissions are based upon a percentage of the premium that the insurance company charges to the policyholder and are subject to forfeiture in instances where a policyholder cancels prior to the end of the policy. Our contract with our underwriting partner provides for contingent commissions to be paid to us in accordance with the agreement. This agreement provides for a calculation that considers, on the policies sold by us, earned premiums less i) earned agent commissions, ii) a percent of premium retained by our underwriting partner, iii) incurred losses, and iv) profit retained by our underwriting partner during the time period. Our estimate of contingent commission revenue considers historical loss experience on the policies sold by us. If the policy is cancelled, our commissions are forfeited as a percent of the unearned premium. As a result, we recognize commissions related to these services as earned ratably over the policy term.
On Premise Revenue
Sales of our on premise software solutions consist of an annual term license, which includes maintenance and support. Clients can renew their annual term license for additional one-year terms at renewal price levels. We recognize revenue for the annual term license and support services on a straight-line basis over the contract term.
We also derive on premise revenue from multiple-element arrangements that include perpetual licenses with maintenance and other services to be provided over a fixed term. Revenue is recognized for delivered items using the residual method when we have VSOE of fair value for the undelivered items and all other criteria for revenue recognition have been met. When VSOE has not been asserted for the undelivered items, we recognize the arrangement fees ratably over the longer of the client support period or the period during which professional services are rendered.
Professional and Other Revenue
Professional services and other revenue are recognized as the services are rendered for time and material contracts. Training revenues are recognized after the services are performed.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue consists primarily of salaries and related personnel expenses of our operations and support personnel, including training and implementation services; expenses related to the operation of our data centers; fees paid to third-party providers; allocations of facilities overhead costs; depreciation; amortization of acquired technologies; and amortization of capitalized software.
Stock-Based Compensation
Stock-Based Expense
The Company recognizes compensation expense related to stock options and shares of restricted stock based on the estimated fair value of the awards on the date of grant, net of estimated forfeitures. The Company generally grants time-based stock options and restricted stock awards, which vest over a specified period of time; market-based awards, which become eligible to vest only after the achievement of a condition based upon the trading price of the Company's common stock and vest over a specified period of time thereafter; and performance-based awards, which become eligible to vest upon the achievement of a specific performance condition, after which they vest over a specified period of time.
For time-based stock options and restricted stock awards and performance-based awards, expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period. Expense associated with market-based awards is recognized over the requisite service period using the graded-vesting attribution method.
Advertising Expenses
Advertising Expenses
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and totaled $19.4 million, $16.3 million, and $15.1 million for the years ended December 31, 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively.
Income Taxes
Income Taxes
Income taxes are provided based on the liability method, which results in income tax assets and liabilities arising from temporary differences. Temporary differences are differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the financial statements that will result in taxable or deductible amounts in future years. The liability method requires the effect of tax rate changes on current and accumulated deferred income taxes to be reflected in the period in which the rate change was enacted.
The liability method also requires that deferred tax assets be reduced by a valuation allowance unless it is more likely than not that the assets will be realized. We establish valuation allowances when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts expected to be realized. We evaluate the need for, and the adequacy of, valuation allowances based on the expected realization of our deferred tax assets. The factors used to assess the likelihood of realization include historical earnings, our latest forecast of taxable income, and available tax planning strategies that could be implemented to realize the net deferred tax assets.
We may recognize a tax benefit from uncertain tax positions only if it is at least more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than fifty percent likelihood of being realized upon settlement with the taxing authorities. There were no identified tax benefits that were considered uncertain positions at December 31, 2016 and 2015.
Leases
Leases
Some of the operating lease agreements entered into by the Company contain provisions for future rent increases, rent free periods, periods in which rent payments are reduced (abated), or lease incentives. The total amount of rental payments due over the lease term is charged to rent expense on the straight-line method over the term of the lease. The difference between rent expense recorded and the amount paid is credited or charged to “Accrued lease liability,” which is included in “Accrued expenses and other current liabilities" or "Other long-term liabilities" in the accompanying Consolidated Balance Sheets, depending upon when the liability is expected to be relieved.
Fair Value Measurements
Fair Value Measurements
Certain assets and liabilities are carried at fair value under GAAP. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date.
Legal Contingencies
Legal Contingencies
We review the status of each legal contingency and record a provision for a liability when we consider that it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. We review these provisions quarterly and make adjustments where needed as additional information becomes available. If either or both of the criteria are not met, we assess whether there is at least a reasonable possibility that a loss, or additional losses beyond those already accrued, may be incurred. If there is a reasonable possibility that a material loss (or additional material loss in excess of any accrual) may be incurred, we disclose an estimate of the amount of loss or range of losses, either individually or in the aggregate, as appropriate, if such an estimate can be made, or disclose that an estimate of loss cannot be made.
Recently Adopted and Issued Accounting Standards
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
We adopted Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2015-03, Interest - Imputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30): Simplifying the Presentation of Debt Issuance Costs and ASU 2015-15, Interest - Imputation of Interest (Subtopic 835-30): Presentation and Subsequent Measurement of Debt Issuance Costs Associated with Line of Credit Agreements in the first quarter of 2016. As a result of our retrospective adoption of these standards, we present term loans payable net of unamortized debt issuance costs in the Consolidated Balance Sheets. Prior to adoption of this ASU, such issuance costs were included in other assets. Our adoption of this standard did not result in a reclassification of previously reported amounts, as we did not have outstanding term loans at December 31, 2015. As required, debt issuance costs related to our secured revolving facility continue to be presented in "Other assets" in the Consolidated Balance Sheets.
In November 2015, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2015-16, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Simplifying the Accounting for Measurement-Period Adjustments, which eliminates the requirement to restate prior period financial statements for measurement-period adjustments. This ASU requires that the cumulative impact of a measurement period adjustment, including the impact on prior periods, be recognized in the reporting period in which the adjustment is identified. We adopted ASU 2015-16 in the first quarter of 2016.
In April 2015, the FASB issued ASU 2015-05, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other - Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer’s Accounting for Fees Paid in a Cloud Computing Arrangement. This ASU provides guidance to clarify the customer’s accounting for fees paid in a cloud computing arrangement and whether such an arrangement contains a software license or is solely a service contract. We adopted this standard in the first quarter of 2016 and prospectively applied the guidance to all arrangements entered into or materially modified after January 1, 2016.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business to assist entities with evaluating whether a set of transferred assets and activities ("set") is a business. Under the new guidance, an entity first determines whether substantially all of the fair value of the set is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets. If this threshold is met, the set is not a business. If it is not met, the entity evaluates whether the set meets the requirements that a business include, at a minimum, an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create outputs. The ASU requires the changes to be implemented on a prospective basis and is applicable for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods therein. Early application is permitted. We have not yet selected a transition date and are currently evaluating the potential impact of this amendment on our financial statements.
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows - Restricted Cash, which requires entities to show the changes in the total of cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents in the statement of cash flows. This standard is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods within, and must be applied retrospectively. Early adoption of this ASU is permitted, including adoption in an interim period, but any adjustments must be reflected as of the beginning of the fiscal year that includes that interim period. Management has not yet selected a transition date and is currently evaluating the impact of this ASU on our financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The amendments in this ASU replace the incurred loss impairment methodology in current GAAP with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. ASU 2016-13 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. The amendments in this ASU are to be applied through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the first reporting period in which the ASU is effective. We have not yet selected a transition date and are currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2016-13 on our financial statements.
On March 30, 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718). This guidance simplifies accounting for stock-based compensation. A key change is the accounting for excess tax benefits and tax deficiencies. These will be recognized as income tax expense or benefit in the income statement in the period they occur, regardless of whether the benefit reduces taxes payable in the current period. Current GAAP requires tax benefits in excess of compensation cost to be recorded as additional paid-in capital to the extent taxes payable are reduced and tax deficiencies to be recorded in equity to the extent of previous accumulated excess tax benefit and then recorded to the income statement. With the adoption of this ASU, the Company will also record previously unrecognized net operating loss carryforwards of approximately $44.1 million, less any valuation allowance determined to be necessary, related to the excess stock compensation deductions that arose but were not used in prior years. This ASU also will cause excess tax benefits to be reflected as operating cash flows and will allow the Company to elect to either estimate the number of awards that are expected to vest, as in current GAAP, or account for forfeitures as they occur.
ASU 2016-09 is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016. We will adopt the standard in our interim reporting period beginning January 1, 2017. Each of the various provisions within this standard has its own specified transition method; some will be applied prospectively and others will be applied on a retrospective or modified retrospective basis.
On February 25, 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). Current GAAP requires lessees to classify their leases as either capital leases, for which the lessee recognizes a lease liability and a related leased asset, or operating leases, which are not reflected in the lessee’s balance sheet. Under the new guidance, a lessee will be required to recognize assets and liabilities for leases with a term of more than 12 months. Consistent with current GAAP, the recognition, measurement, and presentation of expenses and cash flows arising from a lease will depend primarily on its classification as a finance or an operating lease. However, unlike current GAAP, which requires only capital leases to be recognized on the balance sheet, ASU 2016-02 will require both operating and finance leases to be recognized on the balance sheet. Additionally, the ASU will require disclosures to help investors and other financial statement users better understand the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases, including qualitative and quantitative requirements.
ASU 2016-02 is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. The new standard must be adopted using a modified retrospective transition and provides for certain practical expedients. Transition will require application of the new guidance to the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented. We have not yet selected a transition date and are currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2016-02 on our financial statements.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). This new standard, as amended by certain supplementary ASU’s released in 2016, will replace most existing GAAP guidance on this topic. The new revenue recognition standard provides a unified model to determine when and how revenue is recognized. The core principle is that a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration for which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 also provides guidance on the recognition of costs to obtain or fulfill a contract with a customer.
In August 2015, the FASB approved a one-year deferral of the new revenue reporting standard's effective date for entities reporting under U.S. GAAP. In accordance with the deferral, we have determined that we will adopt the standard in our interim reporting period beginning January 1, 2018. The new guidance may be applied retrospectively to each prior period presented (full retrospective method) or retrospectively with the cumulative effect of initially applying the guidance recognized at the date of initial application (the modified retrospective method). We currently anticipate adopting the standard using the modified retrospective method.
While we are continuing to assess all potential impacts of the standard, we currently expect that adoption of the standard will result in limited changes in the timing of our revenue recognition. We anticipate that commissions paid to our direct sales force will qualify as incremental costs of obtaining a contract and will be capitalized and subsequently amortized. The standard will require additional revenue disclosures in our consolidated financial statements, and we are currently developing our framework for these new disclosures.