Fair Value Measurements
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2017
|Fair Value Disclosures [Abstract]|
|Fair Value Measurements||
Fair Value Measurements
The Company records certain financial liabilities at fair value on a recurring basis. The Company determines fair values based on the price it would receive to sell an asset or pay to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date and in the principal or most advantageous market for that asset or liability.
The prescribed fair value hierarchy is as follows:
Level 1 - Inputs are quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 - Inputs are quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable, and market-corroborated inputs which are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data.
Level 3 - Inputs are derived from valuation techniques in which one or more of the significant inputs or value drivers are unobservable.
The categorization of an asset or liability within the fair value hierarchy is based on the inputs described above and does not necessarily correspond to the Company’s perceived risk of that asset or liability. Moreover, the methods used by the Company may produce a fair value calculation that is not indicative of the net realizable value or reflective of future fair values. Furthermore, although the Company believes its valuation methods are appropriate and consistent with other market participants, the use of different methodologies or assumptions to determine the fair value of certain financial instruments and non-financial assets and liabilities could result in a different fair value measurement at the reporting date.
Assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis:
Interest rate swap agreements: The fair value of the Company’s interest rate derivatives are determined using widely accepted valuation techniques including discounted cash flow analysis on the expected cash flows of the derivatives. This analysis reflects the contractual terms of the derivatives, including the period to maturity, and uses observable market-based inputs, including interest rate curves. The Company incorporates credit valuation adjustments to appropriately reflect both its own nonperformance risk and the respective counterparty’s nonperformance risk in the fair value measurements.
Although the Company has determined that the majority of the inputs used to value its derivatives fall within Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, the credit valuation adjustments associated with its derivatives utilize Level 3 inputs, such as estimates of current credit spreads, to evaluate the likelihood of default by the Company and its counterparties. The Company has assessed the significance of the impact of the credit valuation adjustments on the overall valuation of its derivative positions and has determined that the credit valuation adjustments are not significant to the overall valuation of its interest rate swaps. As a result, the Company determined that its interest rate swap valuation in its entirety is classified in Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy.
Contingent consideration obligations: Contingent consideration obligations consist of potential obligations related to our acquisition activity. The amount to be paid under these obligations is contingent upon the achievement of stipulated operational or financial targets by the business subsequent to acquisition. The fair value of contingent consideration obligations is estimated using a probability weighted discount model which considers the achievement of the conditions upon which the respective contingent obligation is dependent. The probability of achieving the specified conditions is assessed by applying a Monte Carlo weighted-average model. Inputs into the valuation model include a discount rate specific to the acquired entity, a measure of the estimated volatility, and the risk free rate of return.
In addition to the inputs described above, the fair value estimates consider the projected future operating or financial results for the factor upon which the respective contingent obligation is dependent. The fair value estimates are generally sensitive to changes in these projections. We develop the projected future operating results based on an analysis of historical results, market conditions, and the expected impact of anticipated changes in our overall business and/or product strategies.
Significant unobservable inputs used in the contingent consideration fair value measurements included the following at December 31, 2017 and 2016:
The following tables disclose the assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of December 31, 2017 and 2016, by the fair value hierarchy levels as described above:
There were no transfers between Level 1 and Level 2, or between Level 2 and Level 3 measurements during the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016.
Changes in the fair value of Level 3 measurements for the reporting periods were as follows during the years ended December 31, 2017 and 2016, in thousands:
Gains and losses resulting from changes in the fair value of the above liabilities are included in “General and administrative” expense in the accompanying Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis:
In October 2016, the Company entered into an agreement with A Place for Mom whereby we sold certain assets associated with our senior living referral services, including certain indefinite-lived trade names. Based on the status of the negotiations, we concluded there was a possibility that the negotiated assets could be impaired and performed an impairment analysis as of September 30, 2016. We estimated the aggregate fair value of the negotiated assets to be $5.0 million at September 30, 2016, based on the price at which they were sold in October 2016 in an arms-length transaction with an unrelated party. The method utilized incorporated significant unobservable inputs and the Company concluded that the measurement should be classified within Level 3. The Company believes that the method used to determine the fair value of the assets was reasonable. See Note 6 for further discussion of these impairments.
There were no assets measured at fair value on a non-recurring at December 31, 2017. There were no liabilities measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis at December 31, 2017 and 2016.
The financial assets and liabilities that are not measured at fair value in our Consolidated Balance Sheets primarily consist of cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, cost-method investments, accounts payable and accrued expenses, acquisition-related deferred cash obligations, obligations under the Term Loans, obligations under the Revolving Facility, and the Convertible Notes.
The carrying values of cash and cash equivalents; restricted cash; accounts receivable; and accounts payable and accrued expenses reported in our Consolidated Balance Sheets approximates fair value due to the short term nature of these instruments. Acquisition-related deferred cash obligations are recorded on the date of acquisition at their estimated fair value, based on the present value of the anticipated future cash flows. The difference between the amount of the deferred cash obligation to be paid and its estimated fair value on the date of acquisition is accreted over the obligation period. As a result, the carrying value of acquisition-related deferred cash obligations approximates their fair value. Due to its short-term nature and market-indexed interest rates, we concluded that the carrying value of the Revolving Facility approximated its fair value at December 31, 2017.
Revolving Facility: The fair value of the Revolving Facility was estimated by discounting future cash flows using prevailing market interest rates on debt with similar creditworthiness, terms, and maturities, and an estimate of our future payments. We concluded that this fair value measurement should be categorized within Level 3.
Term Loans: The fair value of the Term Loans was estimated by discounting future cash flows using prevailing market interest rates on debt with similar creditworthiness, terms, and maturities. We concluded that this fair value measurement should be categorized within Level 2.
Convertible Notes: We estimated the fair value of the Convertible Notes based on quoted market prices as of the last trading day for the year ended December 31, 2017; however, the Convertible Notes have only a limited trading volume and as such this fair value estimate is not necessarily the value at which the Convertible Notes could be retired or transferred. We concluded this measurement should be classified within Level 2.
The fair value and carrying value of the Revolving Facility, Term Loans, and Convertible Notes were as follows at December 31, 2017 and 2016:
The carrying value of the Term Loans and Convertible Notes are reflected net of unamortized discount and issuance costs in our Consolidated Balance Sheets.
The entire disclosure for the fair value of financial instruments (as defined), including financial assets and financial liabilities (collectively, as defined), and the measurements of those instruments as well as disclosures related to the fair value of non-financial assets and liabilities. Such disclosures about the financial instruments, assets, and liabilities would include: (1) the fair value of the required items together with their carrying amounts (as appropriate); (2) for items for which it is not practicable to estimate fair value, disclosure would include: (a) information pertinent to estimating fair value (including, carrying amount, effective interest rate, and maturity, and (b) the reasons why it is not practicable to estimate fair value; (3) significant concentrations of credit risk including: (a) information about the activity, region, or economic characteristics identifying a concentration, (b) the maximum amount of loss the entity is exposed to based on the gross fair value of the related item, (c) policy for requiring collateral or other security and information as to accessing such collateral or security, and (d) the nature and brief description of such collateral or security; (4) quantitative information about market risks and how such risks are managed; (5) for items measured on both a recurring and nonrecurring basis information regarding the inputs used to develop the fair value measurement; and (6) for items presented in the financial statement for which fair value measurement is elected: (a) information necessary to understand the reasons for the election, (b) discussion of the effect of fair value changes on earnings, (c) a description of [similar groups] items for which the election is made and the relation thereof to the balance sheet, the aggregate carrying value of items included in the balance sheet that are not eligible for the election; (7) all other required (as defined) and desired information.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef