Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2012
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
2. Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated balance sheets as of December 31, 2012 and 2011 and the accompanying consolidated statements of operations and cash flows for each of the three years ended December 31, 2012 represent our financial position, results of operations and cash flows as of and for the periods then ended. The consolidated financial statements include the accounts of RealPage, Inc. and our wholly-owned subsidiaries. All material intercompany accounts and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation.
Segment and Geographic Information
Our chief operating decision maker is our Chief Executive Officer, who reviews financial information presented on a company-wide basis. As a result, we determined that the Company has a single reporting segment and operating unit structure.
Principally, all of our revenue for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010 was in North America.
Net long-lived assets held were $29.9 million and $26.4 million in North America, and $2.6 million and $1.6 million in our international subsidiaries at December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States (“GAAP”) requires our management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Significant estimates include the allowance for doubtful accounts; the useful lives of intangible assets and the recoverability or impairment of tangible and intangible asset values; fair value measurements; purchase accounting allocations and related reserves; revenue and deferred revenue; stock-based compensation; and our effective income tax rate and the recoverability of deferred tax assets, which are based upon our expectations of future taxable income and allowable deductions. Actual results could differ from these estimates.
In the fourth quarter of 2012, we reclassified certain compensation expenses in our 2011 Consolidated Statement of Operations. The reclassification increased cost of revenue and decreased product development, sales and marketing and general and administrative expenses in 2011 only. These changes did not have an impact in our Consolidated Balance Sheet or Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows.
In 2012, we reclassified payments of deferred acquisition-related consideration from cash flows from investing activities to cash flows from financing activities in our Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows for the years ended 2011 and 2010 to conform with current period presentation. These changes did not have an impact on our Consolidated Balance Sheets or Consolidated Statements of Operations.
We consider all highly liquid investments with a maturity date, when purchased, of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Our cash accounts are maintained at various financial institutions and may, from time to time, exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts.
Concentrations of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable result from substantially all of our customers being in the multi-family rental housing market. Our customers, however, are dispersed across different geographic areas. We do not require collateral from customers. We maintain an allowance for losses based upon the expected collectability of accounts receivable. Accounts receivable are written off upon determination of non-collectability following established Company policies based on the aging from the accounts receivable invoice date.
No single customer accounted for 3% or more of our revenue or accounts receivable for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 or 2010.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Financial assets and liabilities with carrying amounts approximating fair value include cash and cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses and other current liabilities. The carrying amount of these financial assets and liabilities approximates fair value because of their short maturities. The carrying amount of our debt and other long-term liabilities approximates their fair value. The fair value of debt was based upon our management’s best estimate of interest rates that would be available for similar debt obligations as of December 31, 2012 and 2011 and was consistent with the interest rates we received in connection with the refinancing of our debt obligations in December 2012.
Fair Value Measurements
We measure certain financial assets and liabilities at fair value pursuant to a fair value hierarchy based on inputs to valuation techniques that are used to measure fair value that are either observable or unobservable. Observable inputs reflect assumptions market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability based on market data obtained from independent sources while unobservable inputs reflect a reporting entity’s pricing based upon its own market assumptions. The fair value hierarchy consists of the following three levels:
For several of our solutions, we invoice customers prior to the period in which service is provided. Accounts receivable represent trade receivables from customers when we have invoiced for software solutions and/or services and we have not yet received payment. We present accounts receivable net of an allowance for doubtful accounts. We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts for estimated losses resulting from the inability of customers to make required payments, or the customer cancelling prior to the service being rendered. In doing so, we consider the current financial condition of the customer, the specific details of the customer account, the age of the outstanding balance, the current economic environment and historical credit trends. As a result, a portion of our allowance is for services not yet rendered and, therefore, is classified as an offset to deferred revenue, which does not have an effect on the statement of operations. Any change in the assumptions used in analyzing a specific account receivable might result in an additional allowance for doubtful accounts being recognized in the period in which the change occurs. For certain transactions, we have met the requirements to recognize income in advance of physically invoicing the customer. In these instances, we record an asset for the amount that will be due from the customer upon invoicing.
Property, Equipment and Software
Property, equipment and software are recorded at cost less accumulated depreciation and amortization, which are computed using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives:
Software includes purchased software and internally developed software. Leasehold improvements are depreciated over the shorter of the lease term or the estimated useful lives of the assets. Gains and losses from asset disposals are classified as general and administrative expenses in our statement of operations.
When we acquire businesses, we allocate the total consideration paid to the fair value of the tangible assets, liabilities, and identifiable intangible assets acquired. Any residual purchase consideration is recorded as goodwill. The allocation of the purchase price requires our management to make significant estimates in determining the fair values of assets acquired and liabilities assumed, in particular with respect to identified intangible assets. These estimates are based on the application of valuation models using historical experience and information obtained from the management of the acquired companies. These estimates can include, but are not limited to, the cash flows that an asset is expected to generate in the future, the appropriate weighted-average cost of capital and the cost savings expected to be derived from acquiring an asset. These estimates are inherently uncertain and unpredictable. In addition, unanticipated events and circumstances may occur which may affect the accuracy or validity of these estimates. We include the fair value of contingent consideration to be paid within the total consideration allocated to the fair value of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed. This requires us to make estimates regarding the fair value of the amounts to be paid. Additionally, we expense acquisition-related costs as incurred rather than including as a component of purchase price.
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
We perform an impairment review of long-lived assets held and used whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Factors we consider important that could trigger an impairment review include, but are not limited to, significant under-performance relative to projected future operating results, significant changes in the manner of our use of the acquired assets or our overall business and/or product strategies. When we determine that the carrying value of a long-lived asset may not be recoverable based upon the existence of one or more of these indicators, we determine the recoverability by comparing the carrying amount of the asset or asset group to net future undiscounted cash flows that the asset or assets are expected to generate. We would then recognize an impairment charge equal to the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the fair market value of the asset or assets.
Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets with Indefinite Lives
We test goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives for impairment separately on an annual basis in the fourth quarter of each year. Additionally, we will test goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives in the interim if events and circumstances indicate that goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives may be impaired. The events and circumstances that we consider include significant under-performance relative to projected future operating results and significant changes in our overall business and/or product strategies. We evaluate impairment of goodwill by first performing a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. If it is concluded that this is the case, it is necessary to perform the two-step goodwill impairment test. The first step involves a comparison of the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount. If the carrying amount of the reporting unit exceeds its fair value, the second step involves a comparison of the implied fair value and carrying amount of the goodwill of that reporting unit to determine the impairment charge, if any. We quantitatively evaluate other intangible assets with indefinite lives by estimating the fair value of those assets based on estimated future earnings derived from the assets using the income approach model. For those intangible assets with indefinite lives that have been determined to be inseparable due to their interchangeable use, we have grouped into single units of accounting for purposes of testing for impairment. If the carrying amount of the other intangible assets with indefinite lives exceeds the fair value, we would recognize an impairment loss equal to the excess of carrying value over fair value. If an event occurs that would cause us to revise our estimates and assumptions used in analyzing the value of our goodwill and other intangible assets with indefinite lives, the revision could result in a non-cash impairment charge that could have a material impact on our financial results. There was no impairment of goodwill or intangible assets with indefinite lives in 2012, 2011 or 2010.
Intangible assets consist of acquired developed product technologies, acquired customer relationships, vendor relationships, non-competition agreements and tradenames. We record intangible assets at fair value and amortize those with finite lives over the shorter of the contractual life or the estimated useful life. We estimate the useful lives of acquired developed product technologies and customer relationships based on factors that include the planned use of each developed product technology and the expected pattern of future cash flows to be derived from each developed product technology and existing customer relationships. We include amortization of acquired developed product technologies in cost of revenue, amortization of acquired customer relationships in sales and marketing expenses and amortization of vendor relationships and non-competition agreements in general and administrative expenses in our consolidated statements of operations.
Income taxes are provided based on the liability method, which results in income tax assets and liabilities arising from temporary differences. Temporary differences are differences between the tax basis of assets and liabilities and their reported amounts in the financial statements that will result in taxable or deductible amounts in future years. The liability method requires the effect of tax rate changes on current and accumulated deferred income taxes to be reflected in the period in which the rate change was enacted. The liability method also requires that deferred tax assets be reduced by a valuation allowance unless it is more likely than not that the assets will be realized.
We may recognize a tax benefit from uncertain tax positions only if it is at least more likely than not that the tax position will be sustained upon examination by the taxing authorities, based on the technical merits of the position. The tax benefits recognized in the financial statements from such a position are measured based on the largest benefit that has a greater than 50% likelihood of being realized upon settlement with the taxing authorities. There are no identified tax benefits that were considered uncertain positions at December 31, 2012 and 2011.
We establish valuation allowances when necessary to reduce deferred tax assets to the amounts expected to be realized. We evaluate the need for, and the adequacy of, valuation allowances based on the expected realization of our deferred tax assets. The factors used to assess the likelihood of realization include historical earnings, our latest forecast of taxable income and available tax planning strategies that could be implemented to realize the net deferred tax assets.
We derive our revenue from three primary sources: our on demand software solutions; our on premise software solutions; and professional and other services. We commence revenue recognition when all of the following conditions are met:
For multi-element arrangements that include multiple software solutions and/or services, we allocate arrangement consideration to all deliverables that have stand-alone value based on their relative selling prices. In such circumstances, we utilize the following hierarchy to determine the selling price to be used for allocating revenue to deliverables as follows:
Our process for determining ESP for deliverables without VSOE or TPE considers multiple factors that may vary depending upon the unique facts and circumstances related to each deliverable. Key factors primarily considered in developing ESP include prices charged by us for similar offerings when sold separately, pricing policies and approvals from standard pricing and other business objectives.
From time to time, we sell on demand software solutions with professional services. In such cases, as each element has stand alone value, we allocate arrangement consideration based on our ESP of the on demand software solution and VSOE of the selling price of the professional services.
Taxes collected from customers and remitted to governmental authorities are presented on a net basis.
On Demand Revenue
Our on demand revenue consists of license and subscription fees, transaction fees related to certain of our software-enabled value-added services and commissions derived from us selling certain risk mitigation services.
License and subscription fees are comprised of a charge billed at the initial order date and monthly or annual subscription fees for accessing our on demand software solutions. The license fee billed at the initial order date is recognized as revenue on a straight-line basis over the longer of the contractual term or the period in which the customer is expected to benefit, which we consider to be four years. Recognition starts once the product has been activated. Revenue from monthly and annual subscription fees is recognized on a straight-line basis over the access period.
We recognize revenue from transaction fees derived from certain of our software-enabled value-added services as the related services are performed.
As part of our risk mitigation services to the rental housing industry, we act as an insurance agent and derive commission revenue from the sale of insurance products to individuals. The commissions are based upon a percentage of the premium that the insurance company charges to the policyholder and are subject to forfeiture in instances where a policyholder cancels prior to the end of the policy. If the policy is cancelled, our commissions are forfeited as a percent of the unearned premium. As a result, we recognize the commissions related to these services ratably over the policy term as the associated premiums are earned. Our contract with our underwriting partner provides for contingent commissions to be paid to us in accordance with the agreement. This agreement provides for a calculation that considers, on the policies sold by us, earned premiums less i) earned agent commissions; ii) a percent of premium retained by our underwriting partner; iii) incurred losses; and iv) profit retained by our underwriting partner during the time period. Our estimate of contingent commission revenue considers historical loss experience on the policies sold by us.
On Premise Revenue
Revenue from our on premise software solutions is comprised of an annual term license, which includes maintenance and support. Customers can renew their annual term license for additional one-year terms at renewal price levels. We recognize the annual term license on a straight-line basis over the contract term.
In addition, we have arrangements that include perpetual licenses with maintenance and other services to be provided over a fixed term. We allocate and defer revenue equivalent to the VSOE of fair value for the undelivered elements and recognize the difference between the total arrangement fee and the amount deferred for the undelivered elements as revenue. We have determined that we do not have VSOE of fair value for our customer support and professional services in these specific arrangements. As a result, the elements within our multiple-element sales agreements do not qualify for treatment as separate units of accounting. Accordingly, we account for fees received under multiple-element arrangements with customer support or other professional services as a single unit of accounting and recognize the entire arrangement ratably over the longer of the customer support period or the period during which professional services are rendered.
Professional and Other Revenue
Professional & other revenue is recognized as the services are rendered for time and material contracts. Training revenues are recognized after the services are performed.
Deferred revenue primarily consists of billings or payments received in advance of revenue recognition from our subscription service described above and is recognized as the revenue recognition criteria are met. For several of our solutions, we invoice our customers in annual, monthly or quarterly installments in advance of the commencement of the service period. Accordingly, the deferred revenue balance does not represent the total contract value of annual subscription agreements.
Cost of Revenue
Cost of revenue consists primarily of salaries and related personnel expenses of our operations and support personnel, including training and implementation services, expenses related to the operation of our data center, fees paid to third-party providers, allocations of facilities overhead costs and depreciation, amortization of acquired technologies and amortization of capitalized software.
Customer Acquisition Costs
The costs of obtaining new customers are expensed as incurred.
We record stock-based compensation expense for options granted to employees based on the estimated fair value for the awards, using the Black-Scholes option pricing model on the date of grant. We recognize expense over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period, on a straight-line basis.
At each stock option grant date, we utilize peer group data to calculate our expected volatility. Expected volatility is based on historical volatility rates of publicly traded peers combined with our historical volatility rates. Expected life is computed using the mid-point between the vesting period and contractual life of the options granted. The risk-free rate is based on the treasury yield rate with a maturity corresponding to the expected option life assumed at the grant date. Forfeiture rates are estimated using historical and expected future trends.
Changes to the underlying assumptions may have a significant impact on the underlying value of the stock options, which could have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
We have granted stock options at exercise prices believed to be equal to the fair market value of our common stock, as of the grant date. Given the absence of any active market for our common stock before our initial public offering, the fair market value of the common stock underlying stock options granted was determined by our compensation committee, with input from our management, and considered contemporaneous third-party valuations.
The fair value of our time-based restricted stock awards is based on the closing price on the date of grant. We recognize expense over the requisite service period, which is generally the vesting period, on a straight-line basis. For our performance-based restricted stock awards, we recognized compensation expense over the requisite service period when it becomes probable the performance condition will be achieved.
Capitalized Product Development Costs
We capitalize specific product development costs, including costs to develop software products or the software components of our solutions to be marketed to external users, as well as software programs to be used solely to meet our internal needs. The costs incurred in the preliminary stages of development related to research, project planning, training, maintenance and general and administrative activities, and overhead costs are expensed as incurred. The costs of relatively minor upgrades and enhancements to the software are also expensed as incurred. Once an application has reached the development stage, internal and external costs incurred in the performance of application development stage activities, including costs of materials, services and payroll and payroll-related costs for employees, are capitalized, if direct and incremental, until the software is substantially complete and ready for its intended use. Capitalization ceases upon completion of all substantial testing. We also capitalize costs related to specific upgrades and enhancements when it is probable the expenditures will result in additional functionality. Capitalized costs are recorded as part of property and equipment. Internal use software is amortized on a straight-line basis over its estimated useful life, generally three years. We capitalized $3.4 million and $2.3 million of product development costs during the years ended December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively, and recognized amortization expense of $1.2 million, $1.8 million and $1.3 million during the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively, included as a component of cost of revenue. Unamortized product development cost was $5.9 million and $3.7 million at December 31, 2012 and 2011, respectively. Our management evaluates the useful lives of these assets on an annual basis and tests for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances occur that could impact the recoverability of these assets. There were no impairments to internal use software during the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 or 2010.
Advertising costs are expensed as incurred and totaled $10.2 million, $8.6 million and $7.7 million for the years ended December 31, 2012, 2011 and 2010, respectively.
Accrued Expenses and Other Current Liabilities
Accrued expenses and other current liabilities consisted of the following:
Other Long-Term Liabilities
Other long-term liabilities consisted of the following:
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
In September 2011, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2011-08, Intangibles — Goodwill and Other (Topic 350) — Testing Goodwill for Impairment, to allow entities to use a qualitative approach to test goodwill for impairment. ASU 2011-08 permits an entity to first perform a qualitative assessment to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of a reporting unit is less than its carrying value. If it is concluded that this is the case, it is necessary to perform the currently prescribed two-step goodwill impairment test. Otherwise, the two-step goodwill impairment test is not required. We adopted this accounting standard in the fourth quarter of 2011.
In June 2011, the FASB issued ASU 2011-05 “Comprehensive Income (Topic 220) – Presentation of Comprehensive Income” effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those years, beginning after December 15, 2011 with early adoption permitted. This accounting standard provides new disclosure guidance related to the presentation of the Statement of Comprehensive Income. This guidance eliminates the current option to report other comprehensive income and its components in the statement of changes in equity. We adopted this accounting standard in the fourth quarter of 2011. This adoption does not have any impact on our financial position or results of operations.
In December 2010, the FASB issued ASU 2010-29 “Business Combinations (Topic 805)—Disclosure of Supplementary Pro Forma Information for Business Combinations” effective prospectively for material (either on an individual or aggregate basis) business combinations entered into in fiscal years beginning on or after December 15, 2010 with early adoption permitted. This accounting standard update clarifies that SEC registrants presenting comparative financial statements should disclose in their pro forma information revenue and earnings of the combined entity as though the current period business combinations had occurred as of the beginning of the comparable prior annual reporting period only. The update also expands the supplemental pro forma disclosures to include a description of the nature and amount of material, nonrecurring pro forma adjustments directly attributable to the business combination included in the reported pro forma revenue and earnings. We adopted ASU 2010-29 during the first quarter of 2011. These requirements changed our annual pro forma disclosures for acquisitions which had historically included the impact on all comparable periods. ASU 2010-29 also changed our annual and quarterly pro forma disclosures to include a description and the related amount of material adjustments made to pro forma results as seen in Note 3 herein.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef