Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
6 Months Ended
Jun. 30, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and footnotes have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. We believe that the disclosures made are appropriate and conform to those rules and regulations, and that the condensed or omitted information is not misleading.
The unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included herein reflect all adjustments (consisting of normal, recurring adjustments) which are, in the opinion of management, necessary to state fairly the results for the interim periods presented. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The results of operations for the interim periods presented are not necessarily indicative of the operating results to be expected for any subsequent interim period or for the fiscal year.
These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and the notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 2, 2020 (“Annual Report on Form 10-K”).
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Financial instruments that potentially subject us to concentrations of credit risk consist principally of cash and cash equivalents and accounts receivable. Our cash accounts are maintained at various high credit quality financial institutions and may exceed federally insured limits. We have not experienced any losses in such accounts.
Substantially all of our accounts receivable are derived from clients in the residential rental housing market. Concentrations of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable and revenue have historically been limited because our customers are geographically dispersed across primarily the United States. Furthermore, no single client accounted for 10% or more of our revenue or accounts receivable for the three or six months ended June 30, 2020 or 2019. We do not require collateral from clients.
The financial health of our customers, including their ability to generate cash flows sufficient to meet their obligations to us, is dependent on, among other things, the ability of their residents to meet their lease obligations on a consistent and timely basis. A portion of those residents have already been, or may in the future be, affected by the general business closures and limitations resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic. The degree to which our customers will be adversely affected by COVID-19 is still not yet fully known and will be affected by several factors including the severity and duration of what has become a prolonged outbreak in the United States, the effect of the expiration of initial government subsidies, and the scope and
duration of any new subsidies that may be provided to both residents, owners and managers of rental properties and other businesses in general.
We maintain an allowance for credit losses based upon the expected collectability of accounts receivable using historical loss rates adjusted for forward-looking assumptions based on management’s judgments. During the six months ended June 30, 2020, we have not recognized additional allowances as a result of COVID-19. Nevertheless, our reserves may not be sufficient if the effects of COVID-19 on our clients become more severe and/or continue for an extended term. We continue to work closely with our customers to help them address the operational challenges they face as a result of COVID-19, and we will adjust our estimates of reserves for credit losses in future periods as appropriate.
Segment and Geographic Information
Our chief operating decision maker is our Chief Executive Officer, who reviews financial information presented on a consolidated basis for purposes of allocating resources and evaluating financial performance. Accordingly, we have determined we operate as a single reporting segment and operating unit.
Principally, all of our revenue for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019 was earned in the United States. Net property, equipment, and software located in the United States amounted to $160.9 million and $154.5 million at June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. Net property, equipment, and software located in our international subsidiaries amounted to $8.3 million and $8.8 million at June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019, respectively. Substantially all of the net property, equipment, and software held in our international subsidiaries was located in the Philippines, India, and Spain at both June 30, 2020 and December 31, 2019.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the amounts reported and disclosed in the financial statements and accompanying notes. Such significant estimates include, but are not limited to, the determination of the allowances against our accounts receivable; useful lives of intangible assets; impairment assessments on long-lived assets (including goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets); contingent commissions related to the sale of insurance products; fair value of acquired net assets and contingent consideration in connection with business combinations; the nature and timing of the satisfaction of performance obligations and related reserves; fair values of stock-based awards; loss contingencies; and the recognition, measurement and valuation of current and deferred income taxes. Actual results could differ from these estimates. We base our estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that we believe to be reasonable, the result of which forms the basis for making judgments about the carrying value of assets and liabilities. For greater detail regarding these accounting policies and estimates, refer to our Annual Report on Form 10-K.
During 2020, we have taken specific steps in response to COVID-19, including employing work-from-home strategies, in order to continue to provide services to our customers without any significant interruption in those services. We have considered COVID-19 in preparing the estimates used in the preparation of our financial statements for the three and six months ended June 30, 2020, but the ultimate effect on our financial results and those of our customers in the near and long term is still uncertain. We will continue to revise our estimates in future periods for additional changes brought about by the evolving COVID-19 pandemic or other issues as additional information becomes available.
Cash and Cash Equivalents and Restricted Cash
We consider all highly liquid investments with an initial maturity of three months or less at the date of purchase to be cash equivalents. The fair value of our cash and cash equivalents approximates carrying value.
Restricted cash primarily consists of cash collected from tenants that will be remitted to our clients.
Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable primarily represent trade receivables from clients recorded at the invoiced amount, net of allowances, which are based on our historical experience, the aging of our trade receivables, and management judgment.
Trade receivables are written off against the allowance when management determines a balance is uncollectible. We incurred bad debt expense of $1.2 million and $0.4 million for the three months ended, and $2.3 million and $1.3 million for the six months ended June 30, 2020 and 2019, respectively.
Internally Developed Software
Costs incurred to develop software intended for our internal use are capitalized during the application development stage. Capitalization of such costs ceases once the project is substantially complete and ready for its intended use. We also capitalize costs related to specific upgrades and enhancements when it is probable the expenditure will result in additional functionality. Costs related to preliminary project activities and post-implementation operating activities are expensed as incurred.
Internally developed software costs are included in “Property, equipment, and software, net” in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets and are amortized on a straight-line basis over their expected useful lives. Amortization of internally developed software is included in “Amortization of product technologies” in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Business Combinations
We allocate the fair value of the purchase consideration of our acquisitions to the tangible assets acquired, liabilities assumed, and intangible assets acquired based on their estimated fair values. The excess of the fair value of purchase consideration over the fair values of these identifiable assets and liabilities is recorded as goodwill. Purchase consideration includes assets transferred, liabilities assumed, and/or equity interests issued by us, all of which are measured at their fair value as of the date of acquisition. Our business combination transactions may be structured to include a combination of up-front, deferred and contingent payments to be made at specified dates subsequent to the date of acquisition. These payments may include a combination of cash and equity. Deferred and contingent payments determined to be purchase consideration are recorded at fair value as of the acquisition date. Deferred obligations are generally subject to adjustments specified in the underlying purchase agreement related to the seller’s indemnification obligations. Our contingent consideration is an obligation to make future payments to the seller contingent upon the achievement of future operational or financial targets and is remeasured to fair value at the end of each reporting period until the obligation is settled.
The valuation of the net assets acquired as well as certain elements of purchase consideration requires management to make significant estimates and assumptions, especially with respect to future expected cash flows, useful lives, and discount rates. Management’s estimates of fair value are based upon assumptions believed to be reasonable, but which are inherently uncertain, and, as a result, actual results may differ from estimates. During the measurement period, we may record adjustments to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed with a corresponding offset to goodwill. Subsequent changes to the fair value of contingent consideration are reflected in “General and administrative” in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations.
Acquisition costs are expensed as incurred and are included in “General and administrative” in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. We include the results of operations from acquired businesses in our condensed consolidated financial statements from the effective date of the acquisition.
Goodwill and Indefinite-Lived Intangible Assets
We test goodwill and indefinite-lived intangible assets for impairment separately on an annual basis in the fourth quarter of each year, or more frequently if circumstances indicate that the assets may not be recoverable. For purposes of goodwill impairment testing, we have one reporting unit.
We evaluate impairment of goodwill either by assessing qualitative factors to determine whether it is more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, or by performing a quantitative assessment. Qualitative factors include industry and market considerations, overall financial performance, and other relevant events and circumstances affecting the reporting unit. If we choose to perform a qualitative assessment and after considering the totality of events or circumstances, we determine it is more likely than not that the fair value of our reporting unit is less than its carrying amount, we would perform a quantitative fair value test. Our quantitative impairment assessment utilizes a weighted combination of a discounted cash flow model (known as the income approach) and comparisons to publicly traded companies engaged in similar businesses (known as the market approach). These approaches involve judgmental assumptions, including forecasted future cash flows expected to be generated by the business over an extended period of time, long-term growth rates, the identification of comparable companies, and our discount rate based on our weighted average cost of capital. These assumptions are predominately unobservable inputs and considered Level 3 measurements. We adopted ASU 2017-04, Intangibles - Goodwill and Other, which simplifies the testing for goodwill impairment by eliminating the requirement to determine the fair value of individual assets and liabilities of a reporting unit to measure goodwill impairment, prospectively on January 1, 2020. To calculate any potential impairment, we compare the fair value of our reporting unit with its carrying amount, including goodwill. Any excess of the carrying amount of the reporting unit over its fair value is recognized as an impairment loss, and the carrying value of goodwill is written down.
We quantitatively evaluate indefinite-lived intangible assets by estimating the fair value of those assets based on estimated future earnings derived from the assets using the income approach. Key assumptions for this assessment include forecasted future cash flows from estimated royalty rates and our discount rate based on our weighted average cost of capital. These assumptions are unobservable Level 3 measurements. Assets with indefinite lives that have been determined to be inseparable due to their interchangeable use are grouped into single units of accounting for purposes of testing for impairment. If the carrying amount of an identified intangible asset with an indefinite life exceeds its fair value, we would recognize an impairment loss equal to the excess of carrying value over fair value.
We determine if an arrangement contains a lease at inception. Right-of-use (“ROU”) assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term and the corresponding lease liabilities represent its obligation to make lease payments arising from the lease. Our ROU assets and lease liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date based on the present value of lease payments over the lease term. The ROU asset is reduced for tenant incentives and excludes any initial direct costs incurred. For our real estate contracts with lease and non-lease components, we have elected to combine the lease and non-lease components into a single lease component. The implicit rate within our leases are generally not readily determinable, and instead we use our incremental borrowing rate at the lease commencement date to determine the present value of lease payments. The determination of our incremental borrowing rate requires judgment. We determine our incremental borrowing rate for each lease using our current borrowing rate, adjusted for various factors including collateralization and term to align with the terms of the lease. Certain of our leases include options to extend the lease. Our lease values include options to extend the lease when it is reasonably certain we will exercise such options.
Operating and finance leases are included in “Right-of-use assets”, “Accrued expenses and other current liabilities”, and “Lease liabilities, net of current portion” in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets.
Lease expenses for minimum lease payments for operating leases are recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Amortization expense of the ROU asset for finance leases is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term and interest expense for finance leases is recognized based on the incremental borrowing rate.
We have elected not to recognize a lease liability or ROU asset for short-term leases, defined as those which have an initial term of twelve months or less.
Deferred Revenue
For several of our solutions, we invoice our clients in annual, monthly, or quarterly installments in advance of the commencement of the service period. Deferred revenue is recognized when billings are due or payments are received in advance of revenue recognition from our subscription and other services. Accordingly, the deferred revenue balance does not represent the total contract value of annual subscription agreements.
Revenue Recognition
Revenues are derived from on demand software solutions, professional services and other goods and services. We recognize revenue as we satisfy one or more service obligations under the terms of a contract, generally as control of goods and services are transferred to our clients. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring goods or providing services. We include estimates of variable consideration in revenue to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue will not occur. We estimate and accrue a reserve for credits and other adjustments as a reduction to revenue based on several factors, including past history.
On Demand Revenue
Our on demand revenue consists of license and subscription fees, transaction and payment processing fees related to certain of our software-enabled value-added services, and commissions derived from our selling certain risk mitigation services.
We generally recognize revenue from subscription fees on a straight-line basis over the access period beginning on the date that we make our service available to the client. Our subscription agreements generally are non-cancellable, have an initial term of one year or longer and are billed either monthly, quarterly or annually in advance. Non-refundable up-front fees billed at the initial order date that are not associated with an up-front service obligation are recognized as revenue on a straight-line basis over the period in which the client is expected to benefit, which we consider to be three years.
We recognize revenue from transaction fees in the month the related services are performed based on the amount we have the right to invoice.
We offer risk mitigation services to our clients by acting as an insurance agent and derive commission revenue from the sale of insurance products to our clients’ residents. The commissions are based upon a percentage of the premium that the insurance company charges to the policyholder and are subject to forfeiture in instances where a policyholder cancels prior to the end of the policy. Our contracts with our underwriting partners provide for contingent commissions to be paid to us in accordance with the agreements. Our estimate of contingent commission revenue considers the variable factors identified in the terms of the applicable agreement. We recognize commissions related to these services as earned ratably over the policy term and insurance commission receivable in “Accounts receivable, less allowances”.
Professional and Other Revenue
Professional services and other revenues generally consist of the fees we receive for providing implementation and consulting services, submeter equipment and ongoing maintenance of our existing on premise licenses.
Professional services are billed either on a time and materials basis or on a fixed price basis, and revenue is recognized
over time as we perform the obligation. Professional services are typically sold bundled in a contract with other on demand solutions but may be sold separately. Professional service contracts sold separately generally have terms of one year or less. For bundled arrangements, where we account for individual services as a separate performance obligation, the transaction price is allocated between separate services in the bundle based on their relative standalone selling prices.
Other revenues consist primarily of submeter equipment sales that include related installation services. Such sales are considered bundled, and revenue from these bundled sales is recognized in proportion to the number of installed units completed to date as compared to the total contracted number of units to be provided and installed. For all other equipment sales, we generally recognize revenue when control of the hardware has transferred to our client.
Revenue recognized for on premise software sales generally consists of annual maintenance renewals on existing term or perpetual license, which is recognized ratably over the service period.
Contracts with Multiple Performance Obligations
The majority of the contracts we enter into with clients, including multiple contracts entered into at or near the same time with the same client, require us to provide one or more on demand software solutions, professional services and may include equipment. For these contracts, we account for individual performance obligations separately: i) if they are distinct or ii) if the promised obligations represent a series of distinct services that are substantially the same and have the same pattern of transfer to the client. Once we determine the performance obligations, we determine the transaction price, which includes estimating the amount of variable consideration, if any, to be included in the transaction price. For contracts with multiple performance obligations, we allocate the transaction price to the separate performance obligations on a relative standalone selling price basis. The standalone selling prices of our service are estimated using a market assessment approach based on our overall pricing objectives taking into consideration market conditions and other factors including the number of solutions sold, client demographics and the number and types of users within our contracts.
Sales, value add, and other taxes we collect from clients and remit to governmental authorities are excluded from revenues.
Fair Value Measurements
We measure our financial instruments and acquisition-related contingent consideration obligations at fair value at each reporting period using a fair value hierarchy. A financial instrument’s classification within the fair value hierarchy is based upon the lowest level of input that is significant to the fair value measurement. Three levels of inputs may be used to measure fair value:
Level 1 - Inputs are quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.
Level 2 - Inputs are quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active, inputs other than quoted prices that are observable, and market-corroborated inputs which are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data.
Level 3 - Inputs are derived from valuation techniques in which one or more of the significant inputs or value drivers are unobservable.
The categorization of an asset or liability is based on the inputs described above and does not necessarily correspond to our perceived risk of that asset or liability. Moreover, the methods used by us may produce a fair value calculation that is not indicative of the net realizable value or reflective of future fair values. Furthermore, although we believe our valuation methods are appropriate and consistent with other market participants, the use of different methodologies or assumptions to determine the fair value of certain financial instruments and non-financial assets and liabilities could result in a different fair value measurement at the reporting date.
Certain financial instruments, which may include cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash, accounts receivable, accounts payable and accrued expenses are recorded at their carrying amounts, which approximates their fair values due to their short-term nature.
We hold an equity investment which does not have a readily determinable fair value. We measure this investment at cost less impairment, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for identical or similar investments of the same issuer.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
Accounting Standards Update 2016-13
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The amendments in this ASU replaced the incurred loss impairment methodology in GAAP with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. Our financial assets
in the scope of ASU 2016-13 mainly consist of short-term trade receivables. We have also considered contract assets in our evaluation. Historically, our actual credit losses have not been material. In addition to continuing to individually assess overdue customer balances for expected credit losses, we have implemented modifications to our historical methodology that reflect the expected credit losses on receivables considering both historical experience and forward-looking assumptions. We adopted ASU 2016-13 using the modified retrospective approach on January 1, 2020, resulting in no cumulative adjustment to retained earnings. The adoption of this ASU did not have a material impact on our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements. We will continue to actively monitor the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on expected credit losses.
The rollforward of the allowance for credit losses, a component of our allowance for accounts receivable, as of June 30, 2020 was as follows (in thousands):
Balance as of January 1, 2020 $ 4,545   
Provision for credit losses 1,097   
Write-offs, net of recoveries (527)  
Balance as of March 31, 2020 5,115   
Provision for credit losses 1,168   
Write-offs, net of recoveries (740)  
Balance as of June 30, 2020 $ 5,543   

Accounting Standards Update 2018-15
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That is a Service Contract. This ASU aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a cloud-based hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. ASU 2018-15 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and early adoption is permitted. We adopted ASU 2018-15 prospectively as of January 1, 2020. The impact to our financial statements will depend on the nature of our future cloud computing arrangements; however, this standard did not have a material impact on our financial statements as of June 30, 2020.
Accounting Standards Update 2020-04
In March 2020, the FASB issued ASU 2020-04, Reference Rate Reform (Topic 848). ASU 2020-04 contains practical expedients for activities related to reference rate reform that impact debt, leases, derivatives and other contracts. The guidance in ASU 2020-04 is optional and may be elected over time as reference rate reform activities occur. During the first quarter of 2020, we elected to apply the hedge accounting expedients related to probability and the assessments of effectiveness for future LIBOR-indexed cash flows to assume that the index upon which future hedged transactions will be based matches the index on the corresponding derivatives. Application of these expedients preserves the presentation of derivatives consistent with past presentation. We continue to evaluate the impact of the guidance and may apply other elections, as applicable, as additional changes in the market occur.  
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
Accounting Standards Update 2019-12
In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU 2019-12, Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes, which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. ASU 2019-12 will be effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2020. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating the impact of adopting this standard on our consolidated financial statements.