Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

v3.10.0.1
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
9 Months Ended
Sep. 30, 2018
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements and footnotes have been prepared pursuant to the rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”). The unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements have been prepared in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and with the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. We believe that the disclosures made are appropriate and conform to those rules and regulations, and that the condensed or omitted information is not misleading.
The unaudited Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements included herein reflect all adjustments (consisting of normal, recurring adjustments) which are, in the opinion of management, necessary to state fairly the results for the interim periods presented. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. The results of operations for the interim periods presented are not necessarily indicative of the operating results to be expected for any subsequent interim period or for the fiscal year.
Effective for the quarter ended September 30, 2018, we have changed the presentation of our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations to add “Amortization of product technologies” and “Amortization of intangible assets” as separate line items within such statements. Amounts shown as amortization of product technologies were previously included within “Cost of revenue”, and amounts shown as amortization of intangible assets were previously included within the “Sales and marketing” operating expense category. Amounts for prior periods have been reclassified in order to conform to the current period presentation. We believe this revised presentation helps readers of our financial statements isolate non-cash amortization expenses that arise from our acquisitions and internally developed software.
These financial statements should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and the notes thereto included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K filed with the SEC on March 1, 2018 (“Form 10-K”).
Segment and Geographic Information
Our chief operating decision maker is our Chief Executive Officer, who reviews financial information presented on a company-wide basis. As a result, we determined that the Company has a single reporting segment and operating unit structure.
Principally, all of our revenue for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017 was earned in the United States. Net property, equipment, and software located in the United States amounted to $141.2 million and $140.0 million at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. Net property, equipment, and software located in our international subsidiaries amounted to $10.0 million and $8.4 million at September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017, respectively. Substantially all of the net property, equipment, and software held in our international subsidiaries was located in the Philippines, Spain, and India at both September 30, 2018 and December 31, 2017.
Correction of an Immaterial Error in Previously Issued Financial Statements
During the three months ended September 30, 2018, we identified an error related to the misclassification of amortization expense related to intangible assets on certain acquired technologies, recognized as “Sales and marketing” expense. Such expense should have been recognized as a component of “Cost of revenue”. As a result, our cost of revenue was understated, and our sales and marketing expense was overstated by identical amounts, which also resulted in an overstatement of gross profit and total operating expenses by the same amount for the effected periods. There was no effect on reported revenues, net income, earnings per share, or cash flows. In accordance with Staff Accounting Bulletin (“SAB”) No. 99, Materiality, and SAB No. 108, Considering the Effects of Prior Year Misstatements when Quantifying Misstatements in Current Year Financial Statements, we have evaluated the materiality of the error from a qualitative and quantitative perspective and concluded that the effect of the misclassification was not material to our previously issued financial statements.
We have corrected the presentation of the amortization expense for all prior periods presented in this Form 10-Q. Periods not presented herein will be revised, as applicable, in future filings. The immaterial error correction resulted in an increase of cost of revenue and reduction in sales and marketing expense for the three and six months ended June 30, 2018 by $5.3 million and $9.8 million, respectively; for the three months ended March 31, 2018 by $4.5 million; and for the three months ended December 31, 2017, September 30, 2017, June 30, 2017 and March 31, 2017 by $3.0 million, $1.9 million, $1.1 million and $0.8 million, respectively. There was no change in our accounting for amortization expense related to client relationship, non-compete agreements and trade name intangible assets. Such expense remains a component of sales and marketing expense in all periods.
Concentrations of Credit Risk
Our cash accounts are maintained at various financial institutions and may, from time to time, exceed federally insured limits. We have not experienced any losses in such accounts.
Concentrations of credit risk with respect to accounts receivable result from substantially all of our clients being in the residential rental housing market. Our clients, however, are dispersed across different geographic areas. We do not require collateral from clients. We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts for credits we offer our clients in certain instances and to reflect our best estimate of the amount of consideration we will ultimately receive based on relevant factors such as our historical experience, current contractual requirements, age of the outstanding balance, and our clients’ ability to pay.
No single client accounted for 10% or more of our revenue or accounts receivable for the three or nine months ended September 30, 2018 or 2017.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires our management to make certain estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, at the date of the financial statements, and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting periods. Significant estimates include the allowance for doubtful accounts; the useful lives of intangible assets and the recoverability or impairment of tangible and intangible asset values; fair value measurements; contingent commissions related to the sale of insurance products; valuation of net assets acquired and contingent consideration in connection with business combinations; revenue and deferred revenue and related reserves; stock-based expense; and our effective income tax rate and the recoverability of deferred tax assets, which are based upon our expectations of future taxable income and allowable deductions. Actual results could differ from these estimates. For greater detail regarding these accounting policies and estimates, refer to our Form 10-K.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
We consider all highly liquid investments with a maturity date, when purchased, of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
Restricted Cash
Restricted cash consists of cash collected from tenants that will be remitted primarily to our clients.
Business Combinations
We apply the guidance contained in ASC Topic 805, Business Combinations (“ASC 805”) in determining whether an acquisition transaction constitutes a business combination. ASC 805 defines a business as consisting of inputs and processes applied to those inputs that have the ability to create outputs. The acquisition transactions in Note 3 were determined to constitute business combinations and were accounted for under ASC 805.
Purchase consideration includes assets transferred, liabilities assumed, and/or equity interests issued by us, all of which are measured at their fair value as of the date of acquisition. Our business combination transactions may be structured to include a combination of up-front, deferred and contingent payments. These payments may include a combination of cash and common stock. Deferred and contingent payments are made at specified dates subsequent to the date of acquisition. Deferred cash payments and stock issuances are included in the acquisition consideration based on their fair value as of the acquisition date. The fair value of these obligations is estimated based on the present value, as of the date of acquisition, of the anticipated future payments. The future payments are discounted using a rate that considers an estimate of the return expected by a market-participant and a measurement of the risk inherent in the cash flows, among other inputs. These deferred obligations are generally subject to adjustments specified in the underlying purchase agreement related to the seller’s indemnification obligations. Contingent consideration is an obligation to make future cash payments to the seller, the payment of which is contingent upon the achievement of stipulated operational or financial targets in the post-acquisition period. Contingent consideration is included in the purchase consideration at its fair value as of the acquisition date. The fair value of these payments is estimated using a probability weighted discount model based on the achievement of the specified targets. The fair value of these liabilities is re-evaluated on a quarterly basis, and any change is reflected in the line “General and administrative” in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. These estimates are inherently uncertain and unpredictable. Unanticipated events and circumstances may occur that would affect the accuracy or validity of these estimates.
The total purchase consideration is allocated to the assets acquired and liabilities assumed based on their estimated fair values. Any excess consideration is classified as goodwill. Acquired intangibles are recorded at their estimated fair value based on the income approach using market-based estimates. Acquired intangibles generally include developed product technologies, which are amortized over their useful life on a straight-line basis, and client relationships, which are amortized over their useful life proportionately to the expected discounted cash flows derived from the asset. When trade names acquired are not classified as indefinite-lived, they are amortized on a straight-line basis over their expected useful life.
Acquisition costs are expensed as incurred and are included in the line “General and administrative” in the accompanying Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations. We include the results of operations from acquired businesses in our Condensed Consolidated Financial Statements from the effective date of the acquisition.
Derivative Financial Instruments
We are exposed to interest rate risk related to our variable rate debt. We manage this risk through a program that includes the use of interest rate derivatives, the counterparties to which are major financial institutions. Our objective in using interest rate derivatives is to add stability to interest cost by reducing our exposure to interest rate movements. We do not use derivative instruments for trading or speculative purposes.
Our interest rate derivatives are designated as cash flow hedges and are carried in the Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheets at their fair value. Unrealized gains and losses resulting from changes in the fair value of these instruments are classified as either effective or ineffective. The effective portion of such gains or losses is recorded as a component of accumulated other comprehensive income (“AOCI”), while the ineffective portion is recorded as a component of interest expense in the period of change. Amounts reported in AOCI related to interest rate derivatives are reclassified into interest expense as interest payments are made on our variable-rate debt. If an interest rate derivative agreement is terminated prior to its maturity, the amounts previously recorded in AOCI are recognized into earnings over the period that the forecasted transactions impact earnings. If the hedging relationship is discontinued because it is probable that the forecasted transactions will not occur according to our original strategy, any related amounts previously recorded in AOCI are recognized in earnings immediately.
Accounts Receivable
Accounts receivable primarily represent trade receivables from clients that are recorded at the invoice amount, net of an allowance for doubtful accounts and credits. For certain transactions, we have met the requirements to recognize revenue in advance of invoicing the client. In these instances, we record unbilled receivables for the amount that will be due from the client upon invoicing.
We maintain an allowance for doubtful accounts for credits we offer our clients in certain instances that reflects our best estimate of the amount of consideration to which we are entitled and that we will ultimately receive. In evaluating the sufficiency of the allowance for doubtful accounts, we consider relevant factors such as our historical experience, current contractual requirements, age of the outstanding balance, and our clients’ ability to pay. Any change in the assumptions used in analyzing a specific account receivable might result in an additional allowance for doubtful accounts being recognized in the period in which the change occurs. A portion of our allowance is for services not yet rendered and is therefore classified as an offset to deferred revenue.
Accounts receivable are written off upon determination of non-collectability following established Company policies. We incurred bad debt expense of $0.9 million for both of the three month periods ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, and $3.0 million and $2.2 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Accounts receivable includes commissions due to us related to the sale of insurance products to residents and commissions which are contingent based upon the activity in the underlying policies. Contingent commissions receivables are recorded at their estimated net realizable value, based on estimates and considerations which include, but are not limited to, the historical and projected loss rates incurred by the underlying policies.
Deferred Revenue
Deferred revenue primarily consists of billings issued or payments received for service obligations we have not yet completed. For several of our solutions, we invoice our clients in annual, monthly, or quarterly installments in advance of the commencement of the service period. Accordingly, the deferred revenue balance does not represent the total contract value of annual or multi-year, non-cancellable subscription agreements. Deferred revenue that will be recognized during the succeeding twelve-month period is recorded as current deferred revenue and the remaining portion is recorded as noncurrent.
Revenue Recognition
We derive our revenue from two primary sources: (1) on demand software solutions and (2) professional services and other goods and services. We recognize revenue as we satisfy one or more service obligations under the terms of a contract, generally as control of goods and services are transferred to our clients. Revenue is measured as the amount of consideration we expect to receive in exchange for transferring goods or providing services. We include estimates of variable consideration in revenue to the extent that it is probable that a significant reversal of cumulative revenue will not occur.
We determine revenue recognition through the following steps:
identification of the contract, or contracts, with a client;
identification of the performance obligations in the contract;
determination of the transaction price;
allocation of the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and
recognition of revenue when, or as, we satisfy a performance obligation.
On Demand Revenue
Our on demand revenue consists of license and subscription fees, transaction fees related to certain of our software-enabled value-added services, and commissions derived from our sales of certain risk mitigation services.
We generally recognize revenue from subscription fees on a straight-line basis over the access period beginning on the date that we make our service available to the client. Our subscription agreements generally are non-cancellable, have an initial term of one year or longer and are billed either monthly, quarterly or annually in advance. Non-refundable upfront fees billed at the initial order date that are not associated with an upfront service obligation are recognized as revenue on a straight-line basis over the period over which the client is expected to benefit, which we consider to be three years.
We recognize revenue from transaction fees in the month the related services are performed based on the amount we have a right to invoice.
As part of our resident services offerings, we offer risk mitigation services to our clients by acting as an insurance agent and derive commission revenue from the sale of insurance products to our clients’ residents. The commissions are based upon a percentage of the premium that our insurance company underwriting partners charge to the policyholder and are subject to forfeiture in instances where a policyholder cancels prior to the end of the policy. Our contracts with our underwriting partners also provide for contingent commissions to be paid to us in accordance with the agreements. Our estimate of contingent commission revenue considers the variable factors identified in the terms of the applicable agreement. We recognize commissions related to these services as earned ratably over the policy term.
Professional and Other Revenue
Professional services and other revenues generally consist of the fees we receive for providing implementation and consulting services, submeter equipment and ongoing maintenance of our existing on premise licenses.
Professional services are billed either on a time and materials basis or on a fixed price basis, and revenue is recognized over time as we perform the obligation. Professional services are typically sold bundled in a contract with other on demand solutions but may be sold separately. Professional service contracts sold separately generally have terms of one year or less. For bundled arrangements, where we account for individual services as a separate performance obligation, the transaction price is allocated between separate services in the bundle based on their relative standalone selling prices.
Other revenues consist primarily of submeter equipment sales that include related installation services. Such sales are considered bundled, and revenue from these bundled sales is recognized in proportion to the number of fully installed units completed to date as compared to the total contracted number of units to be provided and installed. For all other equipment sales, we generally recognize revenue when control of the hardware has transferred to our client. Revenue recognized for on premise software sales generally consists of annual maintenance renewals on existing term or perpetual licenses, which is recognized ratably over the service period.
Contracts with Multiple Performance Obligations
The majority of the contracts we enter into with clients, including multiple contracts entered into at or near the same time with the same client, require us to provide one or more on demand software solutions, professional services and/or equipment. For these contracts, we account for individual performance obligations separately i) if they are distinct or ii) if the promised obligations represent a series of distinct services that are substantially the same and have the same pattern of transfer to the client. Once we determine the performance obligations, we determine the transaction price, which includes estimating the amount of variable consideration, if any, to be included in the transaction price. For contracts with multiple performance obligations, we allocate the transaction price to the separate performance obligations on a relative standalone selling price basis. The standalone selling prices of our services are estimated using a market assessment approach based on our overall pricing objectives taking into consideration market conditions and other factors including the number of solutions sold, client demographics, and the number and types of users within our contracts.
Sales, value add, and other taxes we collect from clients and remit to governmental authorities are excluded from revenues.
Deferred Commissions
Sales commissions, including sales-based incentive payments, earned by our direct sales force are considered incremental and recoverable costs of obtaining a contract with a client. These costs are deferred in “Other current assets” and “Other assets” and amortized into “Sales and marketing expense” on a straight line basis over a period of benefit that we have determined to be three years. We determined the period of benefit by taking into consideration our client contracts, our technology, historical pricing practices and other factors. We periodically review these capitalized costs for impairment.
Fair Value Measurements
Certain assets and liabilities are carried at fair value under GAAP. Fair value is defined as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants on the measurement date.
Legal Contingencies
We review the status of each legal matter and record a provision for a liability when we consider that it is both probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. We review these provisions quarterly and make adjustments where needed as additional information becomes available. If either or both of the criteria are not met, we assess whether there is at least a reasonable possibility that a loss, or additional losses beyond those already accrued, may be incurred. If there is a reasonable possibility that a material loss (or additional material loss in excess of any accrual) may be incurred, we disclose an estimate of the amount of loss or range of losses, either individually or in the aggregate, as appropriate, if such an estimate can be made, or disclose that an estimate of loss cannot be made.
Recently Adopted Accounting Standards
Accounting Standards Update 2014-09
In May 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606). ASU 2014-09, as amended by certain supplementary ASU’s released in 2016, replaces all current GAAP guidance on this topic and eliminates all industry-specific guidance. The new revenue recognition standard requires the recognition of revenue when promised goods or services are transferred to clients in an amount that reflects the consideration for which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. ASU 2014-09 also includes Subtopic 340-40, Other Assets and Deferred Costs - Contracts with Customers, which requires the deferral of incremental costs of obtaining a contract with a client. Collectively, we refer to Topic 606 and Subtopic 340-40 as the “new revenue standard” or “ASC 606.”
We adopted the requirements of the new revenue standard on January 1, 2018 using the modified retrospective method and applied the guidance to contracts not substantially completed as of the date of initial application, or open contracts. We recognized the cumulative effect of initially applying the new revenue standard as an adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings at the beginning of 2018. Comparative information from prior year periods has not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for those periods. The cumulative effects of the changes made to our condensed consolidated January 1, 2018 balance sheet for the adoption of the new revenue standard were as follows:
 
Balance at
December 31, 2017
 
Adjustments due
to ASU 2014-09
 
Balance at
January 1, 2018
 
(in thousands)
Assets
 
 
 
 
 
Accounts receivable, less allowance for doubtful accounts
$
124,505

 
$
(7,925
)
 
$
116,580

Other current assets
$
6,622

 
$
2,771

 
$
9,393

Deferred tax assets, net
$
44,887

 
$
(780
)
 
$
44,107

Other assets
$
11,010

 
$
4,459

 
$
15,469

Liabilities
 
 
 
 
 
Current portion of deferred revenue
$
116,622

 
$
(3,696
)
 
$
112,926

Stockholders’ Equity
 
 
 
 
 
Accumulated deficit
$
(75,046
)
 
$
2,221

 
$
(72,825
)

Adoption of the new revenue standard resulted in changes to our accounting policies for revenue recognition, certain variable considerations, and commissions expense. The adoption of the new revenue standard did not have a significant effect on our revenue; however, it did have an impact on the timing of when we expense commission costs incurred to obtain a contract and the reserves we establish for variable consideration from credits or other pricing accommodations we provide our clients. We expect the effect of the new revenue standard to be immaterial to our revenue on an ongoing basis. The primary effect to our net income on an ongoing basis relates to the reserve for credit accommodations and deferral of incremental commission costs incurred to obtain new contracts. Under the new revenue standard, we accrue for credit accommodations in our reserve during the month of billing and credits reduce this reserve when issued. Further, we now initially defer commission costs and amortize these costs to expense over a period of benefit that we have determined to be three years. Deferred commissions were capitalized for open contracts at the date of initial application and will be capitalized for new contracts in 2018. As a result, there will be a net benefit to “Operating income” in our Condensed Consolidated Statements of Operations during 2018 as capitalization of costs exceed amortization. As capitalized costs amortize into expense over time, the accretive benefit in 2018 is expected to moderate in 2019 and normalize in 2020.
See Note 4 for additional required disclosures related to the impact of adopting the new revenue standard and our accounting for costs to obtain a contract.
Accounting Standards Update 2016-18
In November 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-18, Statement of Cash Flows - Restricted Cash, which requires entities to show the changes in the total of cash, cash equivalents, restricted cash and restricted cash equivalents in the statement of cash flows. This ASU must be adopted retrospectively.
We adopted ASU 2016-18 effective January 1, 2018. As a result of our adoption, changes in customer deposits held in restricted accounts will result in an increase or reduction in our cash flows from operating activities. Under previous rules, such changes were largely offset by the corresponding change in restricted cash and had a minimal impact on our statement of cash flows. The prior period financial statements included in this filing have been adjusted to reflect the adoption of ASU 2016-18. The effects of those adjustments to the Condensed Consolidated Statements of Cash Flows have been summarized in the table below:
 
Originally Reported
 
Effect of Change
 
As Adjusted
 
(in thousands)
Statement of Cash Flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2017
 
 
 
 
 
Net cash provided by operating activities
$
106,288

 
$
(405
)
 
$
105,883

Net cash used in investing activities
$
(395,437
)
 
$
9,311

 
$
(386,126
)
Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of period
$
109,334

 
$
92,560

 
$
201,894


Accounting Standards Update 2017-09
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Scope of Modification Accounting, which provides clarification on when modification accounting should be used for changes to the terms or conditions of a share-based payment award. This ASU does not change the accounting for modifications but clarifies that modification accounting guidance should only be applied if there is a change to the fair value, vesting conditions, or award classification (as equity or liability) and would not be required if the changes are considered non-substantive. We adopted this standard effective January 1, 2018. Adoption of ASU 2017-09 did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Accounting Standards Update 2017-01
In January 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-01, Business Combinations (Topic 805): Clarifying the Definition of a Business to assist entities with evaluating whether a set of transferred assets and activities (a "set") is a business. Under the new guidance, an entity first determines whether substantially all of the fair value of the set is concentrated in a single identifiable asset or a group of similar identifiable assets. If this threshold is met, the set is not a business. If the threshold is not met, the entity evaluates whether the set meets the requirements that a business include, at a minimum, an input and a substantive process that together significantly contribute to the ability to create outputs. We adopted the provisions of this ASU effective January 1, 2018, and the adoption did not have a significant impact on our classification of businesses and complementary technologies acquired.
Accounting Standards Update 2016-01
In January 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-01, Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities and ASU 2018-03, Technical Corrections and Improvements to Financial Instruments - Overall (Subtopic 825-10) in February 2018, which provides clarification on certain guidance issued under ASU 2016-01. Among other things, ASU 2016-01 eliminates the cost method of accounting and requires that investments in equity securities that were previously accounted for under the cost method must now be measured at fair value, with changes in fair value recognized in net income. Equity instruments that do not have readily determinable fair values may be measured at cost less impairment, plus or minus changes resulting from observable price changes in orderly transactions for identical or similar investments of the same issuer. This ASU became effective on January 1, 2018. We hold an investment which was accounted for under the cost method of accounting prior to January 1, 2018, which does not have a readily determinable fair value and has had no observable price change. Therefore, we continue to measure this investment at cost, less any impairment. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Accounting Standards Update 2018-07
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which simplifies the accounting for share-based payments granted to nonemployees for goods and services. Under this ASU, most of the guidance on such payments to nonemployees would be aligned with the requirements for share-based payments granted to employees. ASU 2018-07 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and early adoption is permitted. We early adopted ASU 2018-07 effective July 1, 2018, and the adoption did not have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
Recently Issued Accounting Standards
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-15, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other-Internal-Use Software (Subtopic 350-40): Customer's Accounting for Implementation Costs Incurred in a Cloud Computing Arrangement That is a Service Contract. This ASU aligns the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred in a hosting arrangement that is a service contract with the requirements for capitalizing implementation costs incurred to develop or obtain internal-use software. ASU 2018-15 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and early adoption is permitted. The amendments in this update will be applied either retrospectively or prospectively to all implementation costs incurred after the date of adoption. We are currently evaluating the impact of this ASU on our consolidated financial statements.
In February 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-02, Income Statement - Reporting Comprehensive Income (Topic 220): Reclassification of Certain Tax Effects from Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income, which provides companies the option to reclassify tax effects stranded in accumulated other comprehensive income as a result of the 2017 Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“Tax Reform Act”) to retained earnings. ASU 2018-02 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and should be applied either in the period of adoption or retrospectively to each period in which the effect of the change in the U.S. federal corporate income tax rate in the Tax Reform Act is recognized. Early adoption is permitted. We are currently evaluating this ASU, but the adoption is not expected to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In August 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-12, Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815): Targeted Improvements to Accounting for Hedging Activities, which expands an entity’s ability to apply hedge accounting for nonfinancial and financial risk components and allows for a simplified approach for fair value hedging of interest rate risk. Certain of the amendments in this ASU as they relate to cash flow hedges, eliminate the requirement to separately record hedge ineffectiveness currently in earnings. Instead, the entire change in the fair value of the hedging instrument is recorded in Other Comprehensive Income (“OCI”), and amounts deferred in OCI will be reclassified to earnings in the same income statement line item in which the earnings effect of the hedged item is reported. Additionally, this ASU simplifies the hedge documentation and effectiveness assessment requirements under the previous guidance. ASU 2017-12 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years, and early adoption is permitted. The changes in this ASU will be applied on a modified retrospective basis through a cumulative effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings as of the initial application date.
While we are continuing to assess all potential impacts of ASU 2017-12 on our consolidated financial statements, its most immediate effect will be the initial recognition of the entire change in the fair value of our interest rate swaps in other comprehensive income. Similar to our current treatment of the effective portion of a change in fair value, the ineffective portion will be reclassified into interest expense as interest payments are made on our variable rate debt. Under our current practice, the ineffective portion is initially recorded as a component of interest expense in the period of change. We will adopt this standard effective January 1, 2019 and do not expect the changes in the ASU to have a material impact on our consolidated financial statements.
In July 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-11, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Distinguishing Liabilities from Equity (Topic 480), Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815). The amendments of this ASU allow companies to exclude a down round feature when determining whether a financial instrument (or embedded conversion feature) is considered indexed to the entity’s own stock. As a result, financial instruments (or embedded conversion features) with down round features may no longer be required to be accounted for as derivative liabilities. A company will recognize the value of a down round feature only when it is triggered and the strike price has been adjusted downward. For equity-classified freestanding financial instruments, an entity will treat the value of the effect of the down round as a dividend and a reduction of income available to common shareholders in computing basic earnings per share. For convertible instruments with embedded conversion features containing down round provisions, entities will recognize the value of the down round as a beneficial conversion discount to be amortized to earnings. ASU 2017-11 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, and the guidance is to be applied using a full or modified retrospective approach. We are currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2017-11 on our consolidated financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments - Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments. The amendments in this ASU replace the incurred loss impairment methodology in current GAAP with a methodology that reflects expected credit losses and requires consideration of a broader range of reasonable and supportable information to inform credit loss estimates. ASU 2016-13 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted in fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018. The amendments in this ASU are to be applied through a cumulative-effect adjustment to retained earnings as of the first reporting period in which the ASU is effective. We have not yet selected a transition date and are currently evaluating the impact of adopting ASU 2016-13 on our consolidated financial statements.
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). The new guidance requires lessees to recognize assets and liabilities arising from all leases with a lease term of more than 12 months, including those classified as operating leases under previous accounting guidance. It also requires disclosure of key information about leasing arrangements to increase transparency and comparability among organizations.
ASU 2016-02 is effective for interim and annual periods beginning after December 15, 2018. Early adoption is permitted. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-11, Leases - Targeted Improvements, which provides for an optional transition method to allow companies to initially account for the impact of the adoption with a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings on January 1, 2019. This eliminates the requirement to restate amounts presented prior to January 1, 2019. We will adopt the standard effective January 1, 2019, and we expect to elect this optional transition method, as well as certain practical expedients permitted under the transition guidance. As previously disclosed, we anticipate that the standard will have a material impact on our balance sheet from the recognition of right of use assets and lease liabilities for operating leases. We believe the adoption of this guidance will modify our ongoing analysis and disclosures of lease agreements. We are in the latter stages of implementing a new lease software solution and continue to evaluate the impact to our consolidated financial statements.